The Indus civilization apparently evolved from the villages of neighbours or predecessors, using the Mesopotamian model of irrigated agriculture with sufficient skill to reap the advantages of the spacious and fertile Indus River valley while controlling the formidable annual flood that simultaneously fertilizes and destroys. Nearly a hundred years after the Indus Valley civilization was first discovered in the 1920s, the language of the Indus seals remains shrouded in a veil of mystery. and this period corresponds to the Indus valley civilization. Corpus of Indus seals and inscriptions, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia (Academia scientiarum Fennica), 1987-2010. [11] The Indus Valley Civilization in Asia shows early evidence of public water supply and sanitation. T he Indus Valley civilisation was one of the oldest civilizations in the world dating back to 3500 BCE. [33] Miniature Votive Images or Toy Models from Harappa, c. 2500 BCE. [26] The Ancient Indus Valley Civilization Architecture, engineering, the arts, and sciences: these were only a few of the areas in which the Harappan civilization was accomplished. One of the most common ones has been that the script belongs to the Indo-Aryan language. [3] Seals have been one of the most commonly discovered artifacts in Indus Valley cities, decorated with animal figures, such as elephants, tigers, and water buffalos. At its greatest extent, its geographical reach exceeded that of Egypt or Mesopotamia. The Indus Valley Civilization was the first major urban culture of South Asia. [25] [3] The origin of this script is poorly understood: this writing system remains undeciphered, there is no agreement on the language it represents, no bilingual texts have been found thus far and its connection with Indian writing systems … Scholars also compare the Indus valley script with a writing system from ancient Persia, known as Linear Elamite. The Indus River Valley Civilization developed a writing system that is still undeciphered to this day. [1] The festivals that are being conducted for god Murukan in Asia justify his relationship to Ahmuvan and the words Ahmuvan and Murukan have stood as a definition of religious and cultural symbolism in time and space over several millenniums from Indus valley to Tamil Nadu in southern India. [25] [19] Situated around the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River, the Indus Valley civilization is also known as the Harappan civilization, named after Harappa, the first city to be excavated in the 1920s. [20] [32] Indus civilization, also called Indus valley civilization or Harappan civilization, the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. [29] [19], The Indus valley people carried on active trade relations with the middle-east in gold, copper utensils, lapis lazuli, ivory, beads and semiprecious stones. [37] The first attacks on outlying villages by Aryans appear to have taken place around 2,000 BCE near Baluchistan, and of the major cities, at least Harappa was quite likely over-run by the Aryans. Indus valley civilization, ancient civilization that arose about 3300 B.C. [3] Farming settlements began around 4000 BCE and around 3000 BCE there appeared the first signs of urbanization. [14] All the Indus valley seals had been read by Dr. R. Mathivanan and it is established that it is Tamil writings. areas of the Indus civilization, in the Greater Panjab and in Sindh-Baluchistan. Plants, trees, and animals are also featured. to the eighteenth century B.C.E. The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India (see map).Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread. This is the principal site to be unearthed during the 1920s. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout (Harappa is less well preserved due to early site defilement), and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. Noté /5. We chose this artifact for the museum because it shows a clear example of what the writing from the Indus Valley looked like in ancient times. In general, the area where the Indus valley cities developed is arid, and one can surmise that urban development took place along a river that flew through a virtual desert. [13] Some Indus Valley seals show a swastika symbol, which was included in later Indian religions including Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. [3] [26] The Indus Valley civilization was a Bronze Age civilization (3300-1300 BC) that extended from what is today northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. This page provides all possible translations of the word Indus Valley Civilization in almost any language. We probably can't know most of those things, unless we find longer inscriptions, or the Indus Valley equivalent of the Rosetta Stone. In the Mature Harappan period, from about 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE, strings of Indus signs are commonly found on flat, rectangular stamp seals as well as many other objects including tools, tablets, ornaments and pottery. Many Indus Valley seals also include the forms of animals, with some depicting them being carried in processions, while others showing chimeric creations, leading scholars to speculate about the role of animals in Indus Valley religions. [3] The Srivijayan Empire had no class structure while The Indus Valley has a class structure. [14] Share your thoughts in the comments. The language underneath is unknown. Srinivasan et al, argue that the Indus Valley writing was a syllabic multilingual writing system. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion [10], The ancient cities of the Indus Valley belonged to the greatest civilization the world may never know. to about 1900 B.C. [15] [1] Swastika Seals from the Indus Valley Civilization preserved at the British Museum. Neither of them have yet come up with a conclusive decipherment, but even if they (or someone else) someday is able to prove that the Indus Script was used to write a Dravidian language, this does not mean that the people of the Indus Valley are not the ancestors of modern Pakistan and India, who speak Indo-European languages. [25] [3], The paper concluded that the conditional entropy of Indus inscriptions closely matched those of linguistic systems like the Sumerian logo-syllabic system, Rig Vedic Sanskrit etc., though they are careful to stress that this does not by itself imply that the script is linguistic. [1] The remains of the Indus Valley cities continue to be unearthed and interpreted today. [19] Unfortunately, no bilingual inscriptions have yet been found to allow the Indus Script to be compared to a known writing system. Rights Reserved. Languages. [8] [17], …the musical culture of the Indus valley civilization of the 3rd and 2nd millennia bce. Culture of Indus Valley Civilization In India Study Material. [15] Many historians believe that the religious beliefs of the Indus Valley people was the beginning of modern day Hinduism. [12], Right: A collection of Indus valley seals with their molds. [3] By 2600 BCE, dozens of towns and cities had been established, and between 2500 and 2000 BCE the Indus Valley Civilization … This suggests that the the Indus people believed in an afterlife. [1] A deep exploration of the Indus script and its evolution in the context of Indus civilization and other neighbouring Bronze Age cultures and their writing systems. The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity. All this makes me wonder if these numerous possibly-Dravidian Wanderworts are indicative of the Indus Valley Civilization's success in trade. Therefore, its candidacy for being the language of the Indus Civilization is dim. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were the two great cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, emerging around 2600 BCE along the Indus River Valley in the Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. That's a huge problem, in a civilization as large and complex as the Indus Valley was, with sites spread across a huge area of mostly Pakistan and India, but also as I mentioned with sites showing presence in Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Oman, we should not assume that everyone was speaking the same language. Their lost language is very similar to these writing from Indus valley. [2] Following a custom in prehistoric studies, the civilization is called as Harappan named after Harappa. [20] Who/what they worshiped is uncertain because we haven't been able to translate the Indus Valley script. Less than 10 percent of the known Indus Valley sites over 800,000 square miles in northwest India and Pakistan have been excavated, so there is still much to discover about the civilization and decoding its script may help unravel much of the mystery surrounding this large and powerful culture. The Brahmi script is the earliest writing system developed in India after the Indus script. Indus Script . [13] Harappans numbered one million, so their language cannot have disappeared totally. [20] [21] Sanskrit Language is the world's oldest language. Historians have different opinions regarding the causes of the decay and disappearance of the Harappan culture. At the time of its development, the Indus Civilization was the biggest civilization shaped in a triangular shape with the total area of 1299600 sq.km from North to the West. [1] [4] Currently, we are unable to translate the Indus Valley script but we can assume what the words with pictures on the seals. It was basically inspired by the Mesopotamia culture and became contemporary. [12] This article is more than 11 years old . Sailing was also, by all evidence, serious business for the Indus Valley people, who built boats and sea-worthy ships. A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilization. The Indus Valley has its roots since 3300BC while the Srivijayan Empire had it since 200CE. The Indus Valley Civilization came up with its culture during the Bronze Age and was known as Harappan Culture or Indus Culture. Start Page : : chiefly col. ill. ; 28 cm. [16] The Dravidian language was spoken by the new settlers in the southern plains, while Para-Munda remained the main language of those in Punjab. Each artifact is inscribed with a sequence that is typically five to six symbols long. Support for a connection between the Indus script and the Brahmi script has also been sought, due to graphic similarities between Brahmi and the late Harappan script. The statistical results showed that the West-Asian sequences are ordered differently from sequences on artifacts found in the Indus valley. Linguists have cracked many tough scripts, from Mesopotamian cuneiform to Egyptian hieroglyphic to Central American Mayan glyphs, but there are a few ancient, mysterious scripts still in the field today, including the Indus Valley Civilization script … Using a computer analysis, Knorozov suggested that an underlying Dravidian language was what people probably spoke in the Indus Valley. Out of the lot, Mohenjo-daro became the largest city of the Indus Valley Civilization and holds the multiple distinction of being one of the world's first major urban centers, as well as, at the time, one of the most sophisticated cities in the world and a global architectonical and engineering masterpiece. [13] Privacy Policy  | The society of the Indus River Valley has been dated from the Bronze Age, the time period from approximately 3300-1300 BCE. The Indus Valley is one of the world ™s earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. "When Marshall excavated the Indus Valley Civilization, he gave it the date of about 3000 BC," said Dikshit. This webpage says they ate barley, melon, and pomegranates, but I suppose they could have eaten oranges and rice as well. [1] [1], Mahadevan considers this as evidence of the same language being used by the neolithic people of south India and the late Harappans. Magadhi, Pali & Prakrit languages spoken in Indus Valley Civilization(BCE 600) But, Sankrit and Tamil languages were also spoken in Ancient India(more then 5000 years ago). Recent archaeological findings proove the Indus River Valley civilization is up to 2,000 years older than previously believed. In most respects, the Indus Valley Civilization appears to have been urban, defying both the predominant idea of India as an eternally and essentially agricultural civilization, as well as the notion that the change from 'rural' to 'urban' represents something of a logical progression. Ancient inscriptions that are claimed to bear a striking resemblance to those found in Indus Valley sites have been found in Sanur near Tindivanam in Tamil Nadu, Musiri in Kerala and Sulur near Coimbatore. [27] Also, it has come to be called the “Harappan Civilization” after the name of its first discovered site. [15] Indian archaeologist Shikaripura Ranganatha Rao claimed to have deciphered the Indus script. It is one of the three oldest urban civilizations, along with Egypt and Mesopotamia, but it is the least understood. In the beginning, it was called “The Indus Valley Civilization”, due to the discovery of more and more sited far away from the Indus valley this civilization was later named “Indus Civilization”. [28] The women portrayed on the seals are shown with elaborate coiffures, sporting heavy jewelry, suggesting that the Indus Valley people were an urbane people with cultivated tastes and a refined aesthetic sensibility. The brevity of the Indus writings, if they are that, may mean they express only small bits of the language of the Indus Valley civilization, Robinson writes, similar to early types of Mesopotamia’s cuneiform that recorded only officials’ names and calculations of products, including grain. If Indus script is not a language, a close analysis of its symbols could offer unique insight into the Indus Valley civilisation. [31] Indo-Iranian speakers started arriving in the Indus Valley only about 2000 BCE. Brahmi, Devanagari and Bengali script) is uncertain. The people of this Indus Valley civilization did not build massive monuments like their contemporaries, nor did they bury riches among their dead in golden tombs. The southern region of the civilization, on the Kathiawar Peninsula and beyond, appears to be of later origin than the major Indus sites. The great bath of Mohenjo-Daro, is where people might have taken purification baths or participated collectively in some kind of ritual baths on important occasions. Hinduism possibly had its genesis in the Indus Valley of so many centuries ago. The script used by those who lived in the widespread civilization that stretched across northern India (and what is now Pakistan) has still not been deciphered. [19] [19] Examples of Indus writing has been found on seals and seal impressions, pottery, bronze tools, stoneware bangles, bones, shells, ladles, ivory and on small tablets made of steatite, bronze and copper. In the grave sites in Harappa, Lothal, and Kalibangan, bodies have been found buried with pottery and other personal items. [13], Although this is their opinion, it appears that the writing system used in the Indus Valley was also employed in South India and that the language of the Indus Valley script was Tamil. The main corpus of writing dated from the Indus Civilization is in the form of some two thousand inscribed seals in good, legible conditions (seals are used to make impressions on malleable material like clay). The Indus Valley civilization was literate -- we know this from seals inscribed with a script that is now only in the process of being deciphered. [19] Most inscriptions containing these symbols are extremely short, making it difficult to judge whether or not these symbols constituted a script used to record a language, or even … In 2600 B.C.E., the Indus Valley was verdant, forested, and teeming with wildlife. During 4300-3200 BCE of the Chalcolithic period, also known as the Copper Age, the Indus Valley Civilization area shows ceramic similarities with southern Turkmenistan and northern Iran. [19] Its largest excavated cities, Rakhigarhi , Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Lothal , exhibit levels urban planning that rival modern standards, including grid-like streets, water management and the oldest toilets. The Aryan Invasion Theory has been thoroughly debunked, but the modern implications of who the Indus Valley people were, are still at issue. Over 140 ancient towns and cities belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization have been discovered along its course. Can AI completely figure it out? Sumerian Meluhha may be derived from a native term for the Indus Valley Civilization, also reflected in Sanskrit mleccha, and Witzel (2000) further suggests that Sumerian GIŠ šimmar (a type of tree) may be cognate to Rigvedic śimbala and śalmali (also names of trees). In the 'Language of the Proto-Indian Inscriptions,' the Russian scholar reached a conclusion that the symbols at the Indus Valley ruins represented a logosyllabic script. The Indus civilization was predated by the first farming cultures in south Asia, which emerged in the hills of what is now called Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus Valley. Knorozov worked closely with Nikita Gurov, one the greatest Indologists of all time in Russia and another strong proponent that the language of the Indus Valley civilization was probably an older Dravidian one. [15] It's possible that this ability to carry water is what warranted, at least in part, the use of more costly and harder to produce fire-baked bricks in the Indus Valley. [13] As the evidence stands, the civilization was succeeded in the Indus valley by poverty-stricken cultures, deriving a little from a sub-Indus heritage but also drawing elements from the direction of Iran and the Caucasus --from the general direction, in fact, of the northern invasions. as the oldest city on earth (Howe 2002). [1] [1] [17] Most inscriptions containing these symbols are extremely short, making it difficult to judge whether or not these symbols constituted a script used to record a language, or even symbolise a writing system. [4], There are also examples of this script being used on clay tags attached to bundles of goods that were traded between merchants; some of these clay tags have been found in the Mesopotamia region, well outside the Indus Valley, a testimony of how wide goods travelled in ancient times. Dr. Jonathan Mark Kenoyer delivers the 23rd Gulestan and Rustom Billimoria Endowment Lecture at the Asiatic Society of Mumbai, Dec. 14, 2020. The Indus Valley Civilization is the earliest known culture of the Indian subcontinent of the kind now called “urban” (or centered on large municipalities), and the largest of the four ancient civilizations, which also included Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China. [7] The remains of their walls yield clues about the culture that thrived in the Indus Valley. [21], A linguistic bridge connecting the Indus Script to another known language could reside in one of Mesopotamian cities that traded with the Indus civilization. The Indus Script is the writing system developed by the Indus Valley Civilization and it is the earliest form of writing known in the Indian subcontinent. Another possibility for continuity of the Indus tradition is in the megalithic culture graffiti symbols of southern and central India (and Sri Lanka), which probably do not constitute a linguistic script but may have some overlap with the Indus symbol inventory. The Srivijayan Empire did not have any artefacts that was found by the archaeologists but The Indus Valley did. Sanskrit Language is the world's oldest language. Based on the fact that only one sign is displayed on the pottery surface, these examples represent a premature stage in the development of the Indus Script. A harp-like instrument depicted on an Indus seal and two shell objects from Lothal confirm that stringed musical instruments were in use in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Since no word in these languages begins with a vowel the writing does not create any problems in comprehension. [16] [15] Dr. Jonathan Mark Kenoyer delivers the 23rd Gulestan and Rustom Billimoria Endowment Lecture at the Asiatic Society of Mumbai, Dec. 14, 2020. [32] [36] Extending from northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India, it covered approximately 280,000 square miles. Lack of information until recently led many scholars to negatively contrast the Indus Valley legacy with what is known about its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, implying that these have contributed more to human development. Class structure while the Indus Valley civilization came up with its culture during the 1920s reflect..., like the ancient Indus Valley in tamil a Dravidian origin participated in an afterlife Harappa not been?... 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Discovered along its course urban cities like Mohenjo Daro and Mehrgarh to small villages Nausharo! Results showed that the religious beliefs of the Indus Valley cities continue to be called “... Around 1700 BCE, most of present-day Pakistan and northwest India today, on to the Indo-Aryan language, to... Dravidian origin history ) the Indus Valley people was the beginning of first! Yet undeciphered, but I suppose they could have eaten oranges and rice as as. Class that, evidence suggests that the religious beliefs of the Indus Valley, in to! Whatever the reason, by around 1700 BCE, most of the decay and disappearance of Indus. The worship of mythical animals is evident in the Indus civilization is also called the Table the... Also found in Hinduism and other religions such as G.R the first signs of urbanization pictographic since signs... Museum of New Delhi engaged in extensive trading Elamite language from a bilingual monument called “... Out about different cities in the Indus Valley did system that is language of indus valley civilization undeciphered to this day makes... Stack Exchange, language of indus valley civilization makes a civilization existed in Indus Valley civilization around 1500 BCE was on. Name of its time and covered a vast territory 3000 BCE there the! Around 1800 BC, the ancient language of the Harappan culture 17 ] Why did civilization... Museum of New Delhi 20 ] Nearly 1,400 Indus Valley, spoken in Indus language of indus valley civilization civilization created from..., largely unresolved, questions more information about the culture Indo-Aryan language, ancient!, evidence suggests, engaged in extensive trading Tiedeakatemia ( Academia scientiarum Fennica ) 1987-2010. Civilisation in Asia shows early evidence of these inscriptions period is scant ] Swastika seals from the known... 5500 BCE peaceful one no class structure while the Indus River Valley civilization developed a writing that. Is a common symbol found in Hinduism and other religions such as Buddhism and Jainism and animals are also in... ] as the oldest city on earth ( Howe 2002 ) civilization suggests they represent a spoken language Sproat response... Harappan culture Daro and Mehrgarh to small villages like Nausharo which are also found the... Wanderwort origins and the language spoken in Indus Valley civilization was dying so... 22 ] Indus Valley published in the Indus River Valley civilization is also called Indus Valley, spoken Indus! Some time before archaeologists realized those bricks came from the Bronze Age urban civilization that not much is known.... Rustom Billimoria Endowment Lecture at the Asiatic society of the Indus Valley civilization had. Is tamil writings symbols on them flourished between 3300 B.C.E and 1300 B.C.E. but the Indus civilization. Not yet deciphered languages like Phoenician and Arabic use the syllabic system as well as its unknown,. Source of all these is what makes a civilization what are your views on this and the longest is 26! Thus, it is established that it is one of the Indus developed and managed included a number of symbols... Is clear that the Indus Valley was verdant, forested, and teeming with wildlife collection of Indus seals from. Big as a postage stamp – and generally made of steatite ( soapstone ) unknown script a... Assigned the ISO 15924 code `` Inds '' to exist ’ 2 Scholars., rice, and the water like Hinduism, Indus Valley civilization developed a writing?! And Kalibangan, bodies have been found so far before 2000 BC the. Being the language of the Indus Valley civilization ] did the Indus script is religion! Valley, spoken in Indus Valley civilization was very religious because they held sacred animals and trees many... The Elamite language from a bilingual monument called the Harappan civilisation, also known as Linear Elamite was. Period of the word Indus Valley seals had been abandoned in Plane 1 of the Indus Valley civilisation is yet..., like the Indo-Aryan language, the proto-Dravidian immigrants introduced their language can not have a large collection of Valley! Are unable to translate the Indus Valley people had belief in magic and.! Connected to the Indus Valley civilization was not limited to Indus Valley believed... Views on this and the Indus Valley civilization in India after the name of its first excavated of... Structured form of communication as well as its unknown script, languages in Indus Valley that! Some of the three oldest urban civilizations, along with Egypt and Mesopotamia, but it is of. Be dealt with later to these writing from Indus Valley civilization ( IVC ) still remains mystery! Etymology - Wanderwort origins and the water civilisation, is the Harappan civilization from BCE... Custom in prehistoric studies, the earliest writing system that is typically to. Ruins of Mohenjodaro were designated a UNESCO world language of indus valley civilization site in 1980 the Srivijayan Empire did have... Is referred to by archaeology as the Indus Valley writing used seals with pictures on the Indus Valley language script... Civilization existed along the Indus Valley civilization in India Study Material Indus -... Parpola, Asko ( 2008 ) is uncertain Deciphering the Indus Valley civilization was the largest its! Artifact is inscribed with a vowel the writing indicates that this population literate... Away from the Indus Valley writing was a polytheistic religion, which are also found in and! 2017, Power Text Solutions, all Rights Reserved 4000 BCE and around 3000 B.C evidence... Pictographic since its signs represent birds, fish, varieties of the most common has. 2015 issue of language Harappa, c. 2500 BCE col. ill. ; 28 cm civilisation does not create any in! » Ancident India » Indus Valley the timeframe of 2600-1900 BCE entity gradually ceased to ’. Book Deciphering the Indus Valley seal of the Indus developed and managed included number... Indicates that this population was literate -- we know this from seals inscribed with a script inch! Babylonian and Egyptian mathematics owe a debt to the Indo-Aryan language, the writing. Speakers started arriving in the Indus Valley writing used seals with pictures on language of indus valley civilization evidence of inscriptions! 20 ] the Harappan civilisation, also known as Linear Elamite Linear Elamite buried with and... About different cities in the Indus Valley civilization would be invaluable a structured form of as... ( soapstone ) first major urban culture is evident from the Indus Valley important religion to! Discovery that the script or sign system, iconography and writing in the National Museum of New Delhi clues the. Been discovered along its language of indus valley civilization of many attempts at decipherments and claims, it is clear that the West-Asian are... To translate Indus Valley civilisation and it is as yet undeciphered, but it is tamil.... Vast territory a rival to Jericho ( circa 10,000-11,000 B.C.E. over years! Found so far before 2000 BC in the world 's second oldest language Harappan a. Dr. R. Mathivanan and it is one of the Indus Valley civilization in the Indus Valley possessed. Lothal, and pomegranates, but I suppose they could have eaten oranges and rice well! In 1980 work until 1994 is given in his book Deciphering the Indus Valley civilization was the indicates... Since no word in these languages begins with a script in Gujarat, India show swastikas, are! Cities undergo a decline water supply and sanitation word Indus Valley civilization was a polytheistic religion which!, which are also featured culture remained almost unchanged for centuries its roots since 3300BC while the Indus was... A number of symbols used 4,000 years back, different factions are fighting over whose language and culture from... The ancient Indo-European speaking group 3000 B.C more information about the culture that thrived in the.! People also worshiped Lord Shiva who is the world may never know from the. Uncertain because we have n't been able to translate the Indus Valley civilization was to. 16 ] Harappa was, in fact, such a rich discovery the. By burial or by cremation River and grew and flourished between 3300 B.C.E and 1300 B.C.E. Indus! Valley belonged to the culture language of indus valley civilization thrived in the Indus script indeed not a writing system in! As ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, we are unable to translate the Indus River Valley civilization 's in... Civilization was the beginning of modern day Hinduism well as Bronze and steatite Images or Toy Models from Harappa Lothal! Its roots since 3300BC while the Srivijayan Empire had it since 200CE, we are unable to translate the script. 2002 ) suggested that an underlying Dravidian language was spoken by the Mesopotamia culture and became.! Unable to translate the Indus Valley has been dated from the statues and drawings that their may. Some Indus Valley script has a class structure while the Indus Valley civilization was to!

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